Yeh na thee hamari Qismat K wisaal E yaar hota Agar aur jeete rahtay, yehi intezaar hota
Ye msaile tasuuf, ye tera bayane ghalib! Tujhe hum wali samajhte, jo na badai khuar hota..
[Visaal-e-yaar = to meet the beloved]
[masa’il -e – tasavvuf = maxims of mysticism , wali= saint, badahkhvar=wine drinker]
Kehte hain jeete hain umeed pe log humein toh jeene ki bhi umeed nahi Koi Ummeed Bar Nahin Aati Dil-e-nadan Tujhe Hua Kya Hai Akhir Is Dard Ki Dawa Kya Hai
hamko unse wafa ki hai ummeed jo naheeN jaante wafa kya hai
Koi Ummeed Bar Nahin Aati Baskih dushwaar hai har kaam ka aasaan hona Admi ko bhi mayassar nahin insaan hona.. [baskih=whereas/though dushvar=difficult, mayassar=affordable]
Girya chahai hai kharabi mere kashane ki Dar-o-diwar se tapke hai biyaban hona
[girya=crying, kashana=home, dar-o-divar=doors and walls, bayaban=wilderness]
Koi Ummeed Bar Nahin Aati hai khabar garm unke aane kee aaj hee ghar meiN boriya na huaa ! [boriya=rug] ghar hamara, jo na rote bhi, to wiran hota bahr gar bahr na hota to bayaban hota
[viran=desolate, bahar=ocean, bayaban=desert]
Koi Veerani si Veerani Hai… Dasht Ko Dekh Kar Ghar Yaad Aaya
ham kahan ke daanaa the? kis hunar mein yaktaa the? be-sabab huaa ‘GHalib’ dushman aasmaan apna..
[daanaa=wise, yaktaa=matchless, besabab=without a cause, asmaan=heaven]
ranj se khugar hua insan to mit jata hai ranj mushkilein mujh par pari itni ke asan ho gain
yun hi gar rota raha ‘Ghalib’, to ae ahl-e-jahan dekhna in bastiyon ko tum ki wiran ho gain
[ahl-e-jahan=people of the world, viraan=desolate]
Jab tawaqqo hi uth gayi “Ghalib” kyon kisi ka gila kare koi
chipak raha hai badan par lahoo se pairaahan hamaaree jeb ko ab haajat-e-rafoo kya hai ?
[lahoo=blood, pairaahan=attire, jeb=pocket, haajat-e-rafu= need for darning]
jalaa hai jicm jahaaN dil bhee jal gaya hoga kuredate ho jo ab raakh, justjoo kya hai ?
[kuredte=sifting, raakh=ashes, justjoo=search]
ragoN meiN dauDte firne ke ham naheeN qaayal jab aaNkh hee se na Tapka to fir lahoo kya hai ?
rahee na taaqat-e-guftaar, aur agar ho bhee to kis ummeed pe kahiye ke aarzoo kya hai ?
[taaqat-e-guftaar=strength to speak, aarzoo=desire]
Koi Soorat Nazar Nahin Aati maut ka ek din mu’ayyan hai
[mu’ayyan = definite]
Qaid e heyaat-o-band-e gham asal me dono ek hain maut se pehle aadmi gham se nizaat paye kyu
[Qaid-e-hayaat=bondage of life, band-e-gham=succession of sorrow, nizaat=salvation]
maut ka ek din mu’ayyan hai kahun kis se main ke kya hai, shab-e-gham buri bala hai mujhe kya bura tha marna agar ek bar hotaa.
[shab-e-gham=nights full of grief, bala=affliction]
hue mar ke ham jo ruswa, hue kyon na gharq-e-daryaa, na kabhi janaazah uThtaa, na kahin mazaar hotaa.
[rusva=disgrace, gharq-e-dariya= drown in a river, janaza=a type of open coffin, mazaar=shrine]
maut ka ek din mu’ayyan hai Jaan di, di hui usi ki thi haq to yun hai ke haq adaa na huaa
phir mujhe diidaa-e-tar yaad aayaa dil jigar tashnaa-e-Fariyaad aayaa
[diidaa-e-tar=vet eyes, jigar tashnaa= intense longing, fariyad=cry]
dam liyaa thaa na qayaamat ne hanoz phir teraa vaqt-e-safar yaad aayaa..
[qayaamat=doomsday, hanoz=yet, waqt-e-safar=time of travel]
zindagi mein to wo mehfil se uTha daytay thay dekhooN ab mer gaye, per kon uThata hai mujhay mohabbat me nahi hai fark, jeene aur marne ka usi ko dekh kar jeete hain, jis kafir pe dum nikle [kaafir=infidel]
zara kar zor seene par, ki teere-pur-sitam nikle jo wo nikle to dil nikle, jo dil nikle to dum nikle
[teer-e–pursitam=pain giving arrow] Ki Mere Qatal Ke Baad Us Ne Jafa Se Toba Haye Is Zood Pashaiman Ka Pashaiman Hona
[jafa=anguish, tauba=repented, zood pashaiman=who repents readily]
maut ka ek din mu’ayyan hai neend kyon raat bhar naheen aatee ?”
jaanta hoon sawab-e-taat- o-zohad [savaab=Heavenly reward, taat-o-zohad=praying and piety]
imaaN mujhe roke hai jo khiNche hai mujhe kufr ka’aba mere peeche hai kaleesa mere aage [imaan=belief, kufr=disbelief, kaaba=shrine, kaleesa=church]
humko maaloom hai jannat ki haqeeqat lekin dil ko khusH rakHne ko ‘GHalib’ ye khayaal achcha hai Had chahiye saza mein, aqoobat ke waste Aakhir gunah gaar hon kafir nahin hon main
[had=limit, uqoobat=harshness, gunahgaar=criminal, kafir=disbeliever]
KHuda ke waaste parda na kaabe se uThaa zaalim kaheeN ‘eisa na ho yaaN bhee wohee kaafir sanam nikle kahaaN maiKHaane ka darwaaza ‘GHalib’ aur kahaaN waaiz par itana jaante haiN kal wo jaata tha ke ham nikle [maikhana=tavern, waaiz=preacher] jaanta hoon sawab-e-taat- o-zohad par tabiyat ab idhar nahi aati Hai Kuch Aisi Hi Baat jo Chup Hun Warna Kya Baat kar Nhi Ati Hum vahaN haiN jahaN se hum ko BHee KuCCHH hamari KHabar nahiN aati phir tere kuche ko jata hai khayal dil-e-gumgashta magar yad aya [koocha = a narrow street/lane, dil-e-gumgashta = missing] Bana ke fakiron ka hum bhes ghalib, Tamasha E ahle karam dekhte hain. [tamasha=display, ahl-e-karam =generous people] ae saknan-e-kucha-e-dildar dekhna tum ko kahin jo Ghalib-e-ashufta sar mile [sakinan=inhabitants, kucha=small alley, ashufta=lunatic] Bak raha hoon junoon mein kya kya kuch Kuch na samjhe khuda kare koi Hum vahaN haiN jahaN se hum ko BHee KuCCHH hamari KHabar nahiN aati marte haiN aarzoo meiN marne ki maut aatee hai par naheeN aatee kaaba’a kis muNh se jaaoge ‘GHalib’ sharm tumko magar naheeN aatee Koi umeed bar nahin aati koi surat nazar nahin aati
I am reading the lyric ‘Leave this chanting and singing’ included in Rabindranath Tagore’s well known treaties, entitled ‘Gitanjali’. Undoubtedly a great work of poetic excellence.
There are these lines to ponder upon “Deliverance? Where is the deliverance to be found our master himself has joyfully taken upon him the bonds of creation, he is bound with us all forever”
I loved these lines, here, Tagore advises the traditional worshiper to give up his traditional method of worship. According to him God cannot be achieved through this method of “बाह्य आडम्बर”. Then he tells them the real way of salvation.
Tagore is resolved to convince the traditional worshiper of their folly in seeking God through escapism and renunciation. He asks them bluntly what do they mean by ‘deliverance’ and where they can find the sort of deliverance, they are aspiring for.
Then he replies himself that ‘deliverance’ means ‘liberation’,’ setting free’. So from what they seek it, from the worldly duties and affairs?
From the responsibility of looking after their or contributing to the welfare of the society, in which they live?
If they think deliverance from these, they are really selfish. And it is neither the deliverance of their body nor their soul. It is absolutely ‘escapism’ and which is equal to ‘cowardice’ a moral sin.
He further says that a true worshiper is that, who faces the realities of life with bravery. So the traditional worshipper should not escape from hard work, for God loves hard labour, simplicity and sincerity. He always lives with those who work hard without personal interest. God is not thus free, he is bound to his creation and that too willingly and happily, with bonds of live and responsibility.
When God is in chains of responsibilities, in selflessly honouring the duties of life and not through escapism.
Although Tagore shows his versatility here. He highlights the utility of hard labour when he says God can be achieved through binding oneself in chains of responsibilities, in selflessly honouring the duties of life and not through escapism yet a question popped into my mind why did he say, ” God always lives with those person who work hard without personal interest.”?
What does the word “work” stand here for? Is it the charity done for others?
But if he talks about our own responsibilities, isn’t it done with a self interest?
Nobody does hard work if there will be no result or personal interest..I’m a bit confused here..
Ph.D Researcher (ESL)
One of the toughest challenges for me would be the translation of my thesis into colloquial Hindi language and publish it, so that the students and people who learn English as a second language could get benefit in their pronunciation and removing the MTI. I want to make the book so simple by removing all technicalities so any layman can get hold, read and understand. I wish to avail it to the school students and government institutions working for the development of the skills and communication, free of cost. I wish to contribute my bit in the education and development of my society and the students. I don’t want to be just another PhD degree holder serving an academic institution and retire when the age comes. That’s my dream for now, I don’t know, how would I be able to achieve it but I won’t quit like I didn’t in past 8 years.
Looking at English, Slavic languages and Japanese dialects, I’ve wondered… Why do stresses fall on different syllables in the same word/cognate in different varieties?
Some books I’ve read on stress in English implied that native speakers don’t necessarily know where stresses fall. People “started pronouncing it another way” in another place/social group and thus different places of stress appeared. An example given is “adult”, with American English using “adúlt” and British English using “ádult”.
The Chinese varieties’ version (they aren’t like stresses but they are often associated), the tones, always correspond, unless the tone is missing from the variety to begin with. Chinese doesn’t use a phonetic script, and it is thus impossible to “predict a tone wrong” in that sense, though it is possible but this is a bit off-topic. Chinese historically had 4 tone classes, each of them later split into yin and yang after devoicing to maintain all the distinctions. Some tones disappeared in some Chinese varieties and thus there exists merging, but where merging doesn’t take place, the tones always correspond. Though some Chinese varieties have tone sandhi, which complicates the matter in practical speech but when we look at individual characters, they do correspond. That’s why I was wondering about the stress other languages.
Argument 1 : A lot of examples from European languages are simply based on Latin, which had fixed stress on the antepenult if the penult was a short sylable and on the penult if the penult was long. So the derivations with their various affixes and prefixes (for bisyllabic words) all have different stress accents. Then depending on what form the daughter or neighbor language is borrowing from, it inherits these patterns. But then the inheriting language might have its own rules, so like FInnish, with strong initial syllable stress, will naturally disregard the accent rules of Latin in borrowing. Anyway, there is a TON more to be said about this, but basically:
parent language existing stress + affixation/derivation + Inheriting language stress rules + time and chance
Argument 2 : Actually there are differences in tones in Chinese languages, especially in Mandarin. The instances I have seen can be attributed to one of two reasons: Loaning and the disappearance of entering tones in Mandarin (the different dialects of Mandarin didn’t redistribute the corresponding syllables in the same way, and especially Standard Chinese is for the most part just plain random. There are also plenty of differences in tone between the Mainland Standard and the Taiwanese one, e.g. 企 ML qǐ TW qì. Even tone differences among different readings of the same character occur: 角 jiǎo/jué.
There are some differences in tone which can’t be explained that way though, for example 期 (ML qī, TW qí) or 微 (ML wēi, TW wéi). A lot of these seem to involve variation between the Middle Chinese Yinping and Yangping tones, maybe those used to sound very similar for a time. Or maybe regional differences in voicing of the onset consonant caused the split into yin and yang register to happen not quite uniformly everywhere.
Argument 3 : As for Slavic, I know less about the processes behind it, but I do know exactly what you mean, as my tactic when speaking Croatian is just to add more palatization /jotation than Slovenian, arbitrarily alter the stressed syllable, and hope for the best.
Argument 4 : Probably for the same reasons we no longer use the plural ending -en for some nouns and do for others. Languages change, though stress changes are easier to spot and keep track of than new endings that can at times seem to change them into new, unrecognizable words.
I have read the article written by Dr. Das Gupta, an eminent linguist. Its title is “The Language Situation in India”
I appreciate it from my point of view as a student, it may not be construed as a review, or criticism or deconstruction; it is simple an appraisal of assembly of facts- figures ponder upon by me in conjunction with the opinion of the writer. I have re-organized sequence of his thoughts and facts to facilitate understanding, my presentation do not cite the tables of facts and figures of census as referred to in the article. My article has a mere object to make the substance and matter more comprehensible and clear.
The caption of the article gives an impression of the singularity but in real sense pregnant with the plurality. The writer talks about almost also all the languages of India but concentrates mainly on ‘English’ and ‘Hindi’ contextually with political, economic, social, educational, journalistic and regionalist situations substantiated with government records data and foreign references.
The article appeared in 1970; it seems that the language situation in India taken into consideration by the writer is up to that period only. Hence we should not attempt to match the prevalent situation.
The writer indicates the sources and origin of details incorporated in the article in the foot notes. His approach is dominated with the historical perspective.
The beginning tells that the scholars of ancient India used to take interest in the study of languages but their writings remained confined to in-groups communication only away from social perspectives. Even in fourteen century the Muslim scholars recorded their observation classifying and analyzing the languages but that is not more than a list of languages in a confused manner. Hence during that period there has not been systematic study of languages of India.
It is when Europeans came into India, their commercial interests and religious missionary zeal made them to explore and do systematic inquiry in the multiplicity of languages in India. Actually the same began in seventeenth century. The credit goes to the English rulers of country for systematic codifying contributing the pragmatic use, official encouragement and comparative study of languages of India.
The prominent amongst the initiators were William Jones, Franz Bopp and the Asian Society, who organized the efforts to find out connection of the Indian languages with that of languages of Europe and the their relationship.
In nineteenth century a question for finding out medium of instruction cropped up which had become the subject matter of controversy and reached up to the parliament of England, ultimately gave a prop to the study of diversity of languages in India. Some designate it, as a conspiracy of subduing the Indian languages and thrusting upon English language on the Indians.
Based on the progress of study up till now George Grierson did the tremendous work of publishing the volumes of his contribution from 1903 to 1928.
The Indian census of 1881 records the data of mother tongues of individuals in India; discovers 179 languages and 544 dialects in undivided India. This gave support the Census of India in 1951 1961.
The Census of India 1951 records 845mother tongues/ languages. The numbers rose to 1652 (out which 103 were foreign) in 1961 census. This census had scanned 85% population. It records 14 major literary languages: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi (1967), Tamil and Telugu together with English, Urdu and Sanskrit. These languages had acquired a status in the eight schedules of the Constitution of India.
There were 439 million people inhabiting India, the country roughly the size entire Europe without Russia, with an area of approximately 1,178,995 square miles. Having viewed this size and population it was a big achievement in classifying the languages of India.
Census of 1961 identifies the population on the basis linguistic family also:-
|Srl No||Linguistic family||Nomenclature of language.||% of population|
|1||Indo Aryan||574 languages of North, West and East. Major amongst them are Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Guajarati and Marathi.||73%|
|2||Dravidian||Four Languages of South. Tamil Telgu, Kannada and Malayalam.||24%|
|226 mother tongues.
65 mother tongues.
The writer points out four aspects needed to study the situation of language in India:
I. Numbers of bilinguals.
II. Degree of control on language other than mother tongue.
III. Relationship between the languages and
IV. Circumstances and attitude of people in the use of languages.
He takes up the issue of bilingualism and degree of control on language other than mother tongue at length, throws some light on the attitude of people but has not discussed the relationships between the languages.
He says that the meaning of bilingual is based on the knowledge a person has of another language than his mother tongue (not dialect of his own language). The larger portion of population of India is monolingual; out of 439 million only 30 million (7%) are bilingual. The switching code does not signify any bilingualism. English is ordinarily found as the most used second language in social and political life. Regional language or Hindi is used as second language only when facile communication is desirable in business or social transaction owing to predominance of that language.
Writer says that twelve regional languages have varying degree of affinity and rivalry amongst themselves. He has not expanded the degree of affinity. Without finishing the discussion on these aspects he abruptly shifts to discuss the status of Hindi and English in India.
The important issue discussed by the writer is means of communication among the various regions and language communities in India reflecting upon the status of English and Hindi in the article. He first envisages on the situation of English and then takes up Hindi.
English has been associated with the evangelical zeal of the Christians missionaries. The introduction of English to educate the Indians begins with the Charter Act of 1813. It continued without proper planning on adhoc measures because state planning of education was not in even existed in England during those days.
When the issue of medium of instruction came up there was not a unanimous opinion even amongst the leaders of India. The Bengal group advocated encouragement of Sanskrit and Arabic; Bombay group wanted to promote the modern Indian languages and the third group proposed English as the medium of modern education. Raja Rammohan Roy opposed the investment of public fund on oriental education rather he formulated plans to establish educational institution for science and literature of Europe through English Medium and started an English free school in 1816.He wrote to Lord Amherst in 1823 pointing out that the Sanskrit system of education would keep the country in darkness. Hindu College (Presidency College) was established in Calcutta.
Although adequate public fund was incurred on vernacular education in schools by the government during 1819-1827 the period of Montstuard Elphinston as such this approach was not against regional languages. The Bombay Native Education Society continued its support for vernacular education till 1840.
Lord Macaulay put forward the concept of colonial superiority and moral authority. This Macaulaian contention of Political and administrative interest (Minute (1835)) was accepted by Lord William Bentinck ignoring the protests of vernacularisms and Orientals. Lord Auckland (1839) used to have views of down-ward percolation of education; also had put his stamp on the Macaulay’s convictions but did not withdraw the facilities of oriental and vernacular instructions with a motive to pave the path for higher English Education.
A balanced policy was adopted through Wood Dispatch recognizing the role of English without resisting the Indian language (1854). In this way English gained the status of court language in 1837 displacing Persian. This practice created two strata of society: the elite national life in English and the commoners in vernaculars. Hindu was more tended toward English education in the beginning. English took a shape of code matrix in specific community. English was reserved for official, academic and international situations. Indian educated people created an Indian English with its characteristic features. Indian English deviates considerably from the norms current among native speakers of English in America and Midwest. English became a medium of Elite communication and not the medium of mass communication.
The above situation made the leaders of national movement to find out a language that could serve as the symbol of national movement. Consequently the Indian National Congress in 1934 adopted the Hindustani. Ultimately Hindi was unanimously gained constitutional recognition.
In ancient days Sanskrit was used by elite and Prakrits by the masses. Like other Indian languages Hindi also developed from the Prakrits and Apbhransh.
Gradually an assimilation of mass composition of variety of speeches.Braj-bhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Bagheli, Chhattisgarhi, Rajasthani, Pahari, Bhojpuri, Maghi, Maithili, Punjabi, Urdu, and Dakhini of South India was considered as Hindi. Hindi regions are mostly confining to north India. The major Hindi states are Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajsthan and Haryana.A big portion of population lives in these states and proved to be the greatest sources of support for the political parties particularly congress. Uttar Pradesh has been a focus of attention in this regard.
The Muslim migrants in 12th century had adopted Hindi for their commercial and social communication. Some Muslim writer also contributed to the literature of Hindi. The view that Amirkhusro was first eminent poet of Hindi has not been accepted by Muslims. Kabir used a mixed Hindi. The Hindi used in and around Delhi was personalized which gave birth to ‘Hindustani’ and ’Urdu’. The impact of Urdu had remained considerable during Muslim administration.
The writer has discussed the controversial situation which gave entity to Hindi and Urdu as two separate languages. He observed that ascendancy of Urdu was due to political, military land administrative needs of Muslim rulers. Patronized Muslim writers and official facilitated Urdu amongst the non-Muslims too. During early years of British rule Dr. J. B. Gilchrist engaged a group of writers to write Hindustani Prose. They developed two style of prose one style was full of Persian vocabulary discarding the Sanskrit and another vice versa; from this juncture a difference between the two language came up. Both the languages use two different scripts; which made some of Muslims to widen the difference during nineteenth century, deliberate Sanskrit aspect of Hindi was also developed. The impact was that Hindu and Muslim of every class marked their mother tongue as Hindi and Urdu. The linguistic study of dialect –speech of touchable and untouchable castes had shown the difference much greater than those of Muslims and Hindus. Hindi gained the uniform standard purging the old idioms due to impact of media and education achieving the communication mobility.
A particular segment of this Hindi became the standing language (Khadiboli) as against the fallen language (Padi Boli) Braj Awadhi and other dialects. The standing language is more close to the Hindi.
The nationalistic aspiration of one single language was felt for an official language after independence. This should imply for an acceptable language of administration as well as a means of communication between the government and the governed.
Our national leaders paved the path for that. Mahatma Gandhi held the view that “Hindustani” as a common symbol of India comprehensible code of communication used throughout the nation should be adopted as a common language. Nehru considered Hindustani as the all-India Language (official language) and C. Rajagopalachari put forward Hindustani as the National language the natural speech of a major linguistic community with primordial affection.
Regarding distinction in various usage of language the writer says that official language may not be a common language but official language is always a designated and accepted in a political community as a language for official interaction. There can be several official languages in a country. He cites the example of Switzerland where German, French, Italian and Romanche have been designated as national languages and given the status even of the official languages but none of them claim to be the common language of the Switzerland.
He draws the attention toward the clarity adopted in the Constitution of India where the use of term national or common language has been avoided at all. Contrary to this the politicians and leaders in India have always created confusion by intermixing and indiscriminately using the terms ‘the national language’, ‘the official language’ and ‘the common language. Even Mr. Nehru goes to say in the Parliament that “thirteen or fourteen” languages of the Eight Schedule of the Constitution are “national languages”. Some of the writers have also been found increasing the confusion by using the term “State Language”(Rastrbhasha) as synonym.
In the wake of finding a mean of communication amongst the various regions and language communities, there have been proponents and advocates of Sanskrit and Persian too. Having studied the past and applied aspects of these languages, both the language could not stand the test. Ultimately Hindi won the constitutional recognition as the official language of the Indian Union. There have been protests against Hindi in India.
Mr. Dass Gupta has discussed the cases for and against Hindi. While pointing out about the cases of protest of Hindi, the writer says that technically, Hindi is both official language and regional language but due to lack in command of prestige in the regional level it falls short of the mark as a standard national language. Non-Hindi states rank Hindi in terms of literary value but defenders of Hindi argue that the status of the official language is not an award of literary merit in the language. Nut for the purpose of interstate communication as it is understood and spoken amongst the regions by the larger numbers Even during the national movement many leaders of the non-Hindi groups were not prepared to tolerate the imposition of Hindi a the single official language of the Union. They consider the English as the link language with the logic the idea of English as the symbol of foreign domination had lost its relevance after independence. Hindi is also viewed as a symbol of North Indian dominance.
The writer also notes down the remarkable facts of development of education in Hindi states and none-Hindi states. The educational development in the Hindi states is much lower in comparison with that of the major non-Hindi states both at the elementary level of education and the middle. In his opinion the backwardness of Hindi states is interrelated with the level of development of states in terms of composite index based on ecological, economic, demographic and social features. He also studies the comparative performance of the Hindi in the sphere of mass communication as compared to the English in term of readership and circulation of print media. Only 2.5%Indian were able to understand English but the circulation of English dailies from 1964 to 1966 increased from 24.9 to 25.3 as against 30% of Hindi population where it remained 14.13 %. In degree of comparison proportionate to the population, the percentage circulation enjoyed by Malayalam, Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati and Bengali appears to be larger. He attribute to illiteracy factor prevalent in the Hindi region too. The record of Broad cast listeners goes not in favour of Hindi too. Hindi speakers achieve low score for their interest and learning the second language.
While summing up the article the writer has opined that in assessing the situation of the language the historical and political aspects play an important role. To review the situation of language the political roles and actions of the people of the country are more important than the size of language communities and their relative social position; the organized form in which the politics of language has been carried out; the motive of the actors concerning the group and the conflict of the language.
In nutshell, I conclude and say that Dr. Dass Gupta has reviewed the lack of study of language system during ancient and Muslim period, attributes the credit to the British rulers who organized & formulated the language policy and study and implemented it though motivated by their own selfish commercial, religious and political ends. Writer brought out the classification and position of regional language family- wise and high lights the their position as well looks into the causes of emergence and prevalence of English language in India and ultimately scans the position of Hindi as the official and national language and its growth and acceptance.
Himadri – Phd Research Scholar – English Language and Communication
Being a student of English language and literature, from one of the most renowned colleges, what I have personally noticed, is the nature of people to look down at those who are weak in English.
The tug of war between the senses of superiority and inferiority is immortal.
I have never discriminated people on the basis of the inefficiency in the command over a language, especially English Language; I am not perfect either because I do not dwell among the native speakers. English is not my mother tongue and I have acquired it as a second language, painstakingly, over the years.
A few years back, I started my professional career as a language teacher. I always wanted to go into villages to teach and join the schools of Municipal Corporation of Delhi to provide a better quality of education, concerning to the language. And I am not Mother Teresa.
Ergo, I agreed to work with some NGO for peanuts. Probably, I was over confident about my “I can do it” nature and unaware of their encumbering nature, I eventually gave a halt to the occupation.
During the teaching period, I came across some students who belong to the less financially sound families and studied in government schools. When they shared their heart out, how they were discriminated on the basis of language. They felt neglected in the society, colleges and among the peer group. After the course, they improved because my work was not only to teach them language but also to inject the confidence in them.
People who discriminate others on the basis of language are the ones who are born with a silver spoon in the mouth or Dunlop cushions to support their back. They belong to well fed or capable families, their father worked hard to provide them a good education in public and central schools with all supports of tuition and books and study material.
The majority of families are from the group most of us never imagined. The kids do every sort of work that we are taught and trained to discriminate since our childhood. These kids do the real hard work to stand up in the society because they know the actual face of, unlike the spoon fed kids who are promised to get Lumia if they score well in matriculation.
My personal experiences made me respect those who work hard to learn. I have never felt superior to them because I was born into an educated family; I was supposed to get a good education.
Knowledge is the only wealth, the more you spend the more it increases. Instead of making fun of your colleagues and college/school mates, help them, only if they are ready and willing to learn from you. They might not know because nobody told them. especially those youngsters with blonde streaks and micro-minis, giggling and juggling their IPhones and Blackberry. You are studying in elite colleges because your parents are paying for it, not because you are working in a tea stall in at night to purchase your books!
Himadri – Phd Research Scholar – English Language and Communication
Most of the people get confused while using these three.
There’s a simple rule I tell my students.
For – uncertain time or period of time. like in hindi we use लगभग, से / approximate duration of time.
दो धंटे से – for two hours
Since – सटीक / for exact point of time or exact period.of time.
दो बजे से – Since 2 pm
During- From time point/Period A to B.
in between two defined time stamps.
2 बजे से 3 बजे के बीच
during 2 to 3
in between some work
e.g. during his study time.
you may practice in comments🙂
Himadri – Phd Research Scholar – English Language and Communication
I am into language teaching and majority of students are of literature and people from literary backgrounds.
The basic Problem occurs when they ask me to relate language and literature. Since each writer has its own style of writing and using vocabulary it becomes tough to use literature with the language learners.
For the solution, I develop some material which I shall share in my future posts but I dont use the material as handouts for immediate teaching.
hence you may use the study material and the points made for your understanding of approaching Literature in learning English as a second language.
The first question arises here,’HOW TO USE LITERATURE IN LANGUAGE LEARNING, AND WHY?’
like I said, It’s just something I figured out as the solution of my problem, I do not define any to the point of method of using literature for language.
Apparently because the teaching situations differ, most of my students are natives and speak Hindi as their first language.
Also, like aforementioned, all the literary texts differ and all the literary theories to explain literature differ as well.
Above all everyone teach in a different style, ergo I suggest please consult the literature provided and use it in your own way.
Stay tuned for more posts in this context.
Himadri – Phd Research Scholar – English Language and Communication
The paper at work “Devolving ‘Ambedkar’ in making of constitution of India” is written with special reference to features and qualities of the constitution, as a part of curriculum of my Major from University Of Delhi. The topic is approved one.
India has been a centre of attraction of foreigners due to its geographical conditions and wealth. Most of the races who came to India either as migrates or invaders have been absorbed and assimilated in India. India is accumulation of races.
Since time immemorial, India has a social order which is peculiar to world. This social order consists of four categories (Varna). At the lowest ladder are the Sudras. The dominating elements of society perpetuate the systems for economic and political reasons.
The Sudras are stated to be aboriginal inhabitants of India. They were defeated by the Aryans and other invaders. A portion of discomfitures was pushed into forests and a portion towards south and those who accepted subjugation of invaders were accommodated in the social folds as serving the fourth order. With the passage of time a fifth order developed who made to serve even the Sudras. They remained subject of exploitation degradation, deprivation from the basic human rights and become pariahs and untouchables. Ambedkar belonged to this portion of society.
Untouchable formed a large population and spread over all over India. The sole object of Ambedkar struggle was to emancipate and bring them at par in the society. He was well aware that Untouchables were not possessing resources nor remotest chances existed for them to have the same. They were also not having political powers and deprived of education, oppressed for centuries
Ambedkar born on 14th April 1891 belonged family of Mahar (Pariah) in India. His father was a JCO in British Army. His mother died when he was 5 years old then brought up by his aunt. He is known for his anti-Brahmin approach but after the death of his wife he married Dr. Sharada Kabir, Brahmin lady. He received his Education in Elphinestone College, Bombay, Columbia University, London School of Economics, obtained degrees of B.A., M.A., M.Sc and D.Sc respectively. He did Bar-at Law from Grey’s Inn, practiced and taught law in Bombay. Honorary degrees of D.Litt and LL.D were conferred upon by Osmania University and Colombia University. His whole life was spent in exerting the efforts for betterment of depressed class of India. In 1919, he pleaded for separate electorate for Depressed Classes. In 1920 organized untouchables and formed the political fronts. Initially he supported Gandhi but subsequently opposed due to conservative approach of Gandhi. He protested Gandhi in round table conference openly. He put forward the constitution reforms in India, larger portion of which have been adopted in Government of India Act 1935. He was elected from Bengal as MLA. When he was wiped out from political holds, he won MLA seat from Bombay with the support of congress. He supported British in an anticipation that British would co-operate in his mission for social justice but at the last moment British did not come up to his expectations.
The real constitutional reforms started taking place only after introduction of Government of India Act 1919. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had been a key player in the development of Government of India Act 1935. The Government of India Act 1935, proposed a scheme of reforms; it contained features like all India Federation, written Constitution, division of Power Independent Judiciary, diarchy at Federal Level, Autonomy in Provinces, and protection to minorities’ etc. This Act was not accepted congress leaders on the ground that it was not drafted by the people for whom it was meant. The rejection could not deter the British. The Government continued the efforts to find out an acceptable solution for Indian constitutional problem.
After Second World War, the Cabinet Mission visited India to find out solutions of constitutional problem. Congress wanted united India, Muslim League wanted partition of India and formation of Pakistan. They put it before the Mission. British rejected both the demands and published a white pape. One of the proposals in the white paper was the procedure for settling the issue of union constitution. Congress accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan as a long-term constitutional proposal; Muslim League accepted it too, though reiterated its objective of Pakistan, but Sikh and Scheduled castes rejected it completely. Undeterred by this reaction Government announced the date of Constituent Assembly elections. After announcement ‘Nehru” changed its stand. Muslim league also withdrew. In spite of that the election to the Assembly were held and final result Announced on 25 July 1946. Congress came up as a largest elected party. British further announced the date of first meeting of preliminary session of constituent Assembly on 9th Dec 1946 be held in New Delhi. The session of Assembly was opened, Muslim League did not join. The assembly appointed Sachchidanand Sinha as the first chairman, later on Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as permanent Chairman without any opposition. Due to attitude of Muslim League, and many other factors the partition of India became inevitable. The Indian nationalists accepted partition not because this was two nations formation a Hindu nation and a Muslim nations but because the historical development of communal over the past 70 years or so had created a situation where the alternative to partition was mass killing of innocent people in senseless and barbaric communal riots. ion, if any unwise step is taken that may lead to political trouble and further division of India